1. The earlier EDGAR 3.2 inventory (Olivier and Berdowski, 2001)
2. National Inventory Reports ('NIR') to the UNFCCC
Biomass burning emissions : GFED inventory (GFED; Van der Werf et al., 2003)
In general, activity data for the year 2000 has been included following the EDGAR 3.2 method (Olivier and Berdowski, 2001; Olivier et al., 2002). Selection of emission factors is based on the assumption of unchanged control technologies compared to the year 1995, resulting in application of the emission factors as included in version 3.2. However, to take into account emission reduction that has occurred due to control measures implemented since 1995, ('implied') emission factors have been used for those countries for which information on emission reduction was available (mainly OECD'90 countries; here shortly referred to as "OECD"). Implied emission factors are constructed by division of annual emissions by activity selected for the extrapolation. In general these emission factors have been taken from the CRF emission data files which are part of the National Inventory Reports ('NIR') to the UNFCCC (Olivier et al., 2005). The gridded emissions all use the same grid maps for the within-country distributions as in EDGAR 3.2, except for large-scale biomass burning for which the GFED data were used (see Section 2.5). For the latter also monthly emissions and effective emission heights are provided as auxiliary datasets.
For November 2000 onwards it is for 90% based on mapped MODIS burned area, aggregated from the native 500-meter resolution to 0.5 degree. The remaining 10% and burned area for 1997 - October 2000 are based on relations between active fires (ATSR, TRMM-VIRS, and MODIS) and mapped burned area for periods they overlap.
Van der Werf, GR; Randerson, JT; Giglio, L; Collatz, GJ; Mu, M; Kasibhatla, PS; Morton, DC; DeFries, RS; Jin, Y; van Leeuwen, TT; Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997-2009), Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10, 11707-11735, doi:10.5194/acp-10-11707-2010, 2010.
These emissions estimates are build combining burned area data from MODIS direct broadcast algorithm with a biogeochemical model (CASA-GFED) that estimates fuel loads and combustion completeness for each monthly time step. These fuel loads are based on satellite derived information on vegetation productivity and characteristics to estimate carbon input, and carbon outputs through heterotrophic respiration, herbivory, and fires.
GBA2000 burnt areas (SPOT-Vegetation), ATSR fire hot spots (ATSR), GLC2000 vegetation map (SPOT-Vegetation), historical reconstruction of burnt areas from Mouillot and Field, 2005.
For the recent period 1997-2005, fire emission estimation is based on satellite products (GBA2000 burnt areas, ATSR fire counts), and on GLC2000 vegetation map. Emissions are first estimated for year 2000 from GBA2000 burnt areas as the product of burnt areas, biomass densities, burning efficiencies, and CO2 emission factors; the temporal and spatial distribution of CO2 emissions is then derived through a calibration of ATSR fire counts on GBA 2000 emissions (this calibration is done for each vegetation class and for three latitudinal bands).. For the 20th century, average annual emissions for each decade were derived from an historical reconstruction of burnt surfaces at 1°x1° (Mouillot and Field, 2005). The CO2 emissions were calculated as the product of burnt areas, biomass densities, burning efficiencies, and CO2 emission factors. A scaling factor is applied for forest and savanna ecosystems separately, in order to ensure the continuity between the historical inventory and the recent 1997-2005 inventory. Finally, monthly emissions are derived using the seasonality derived from 1997-2005 emissions. For both inventories, trace gases and aerosols emissions are derived using Andreae and Merlet (2001) Emission Factors.
MACCity anthropogenic emissions are derived from the ACCMIP and RCP8.5 datasets.
As part of two projects funded by the European Commission, MACC (Hollingsworth et al. 2008; http://www.gmes-atmosphere.eu/) and CityZen (http://cityzenproject.eu/), an extension of the ACCMIP historical emissions dataset to the year 2010 has been developed. Since no global database existed which provide emissions of the main tropospheric gases for each year during the 1990\u20132010 period, a dataset was created, based on the 1990 and 2000 ACCMIP emissions, and the 2005 and 2010 emissions provided by RCP 8.5. This scenario includes some information on recent emissions at the regional scale in Europe and North America. The emissions for each compound were linearly interpolated, for each sector and each year between 2000 and 2005, and for each year between 2005 and 2010, using the ACCMIP and RCP 8.5 emissions.
For the anthropogenic emissions, a seasonal cycle was first applied sector by sector, species were then lumped to 21 species
MEGAN is a modeling system for estimating the net emission of gases and aerosols from terrestrial ecosystems into the atmosphere. Driving variables include landcover, weather, and atmospheric chemical composition. MEGAN is a global model with a base resolution of ~ 1 km and so is suitable for regional and global models.
Global emissions of gases (ozone precursors) from anthropogenic, natural, and
biomass burning sources have been estimated for the period 1990-2000.
Anthropogenic emissions (containing 15 sectors) are based on national activity
data (fuelwood combustion per year), emission factors (kg CO/ kg fuelwood
combusted par activity), and grid maps (e.g. population maps) for spatial
distribution of the emissions within a country. Biomass burning emissions are
estimated with a climatology from Hao et al. (1994), and ATSR active fire maps
are used for the spatial and temporal distribution of the emissions. Biogenic
emissions are estimated with a vegetation canopy model.
RETRO global emissions data 1960-2000.
In the RETRO project, new emission data files were generated that describe emissions from anthropogenic activities and from wildland fires.
Emissions from vegetation fires were estimated based on a comprehensive literature review.
This site contains national totals, sector data and gridded emission data used in EMEP/MSC-W reports , and by EMEP/MSC-E. These emission data is based on officially reported emissions to the extent possible, but some of the officially reported data have been corrected and/or gap-filled.
Different ranges of emission fluxes have been proposed by several studies, which have provided emissions at different spatial and temporal scales. Within D-EMIS, different datasets are being gathered from the different MACC sub-projects, as well as from publicly available inventories.
For the analysis of long-term trends of the Asian atmospheric environment, the first inventory of historical and future projected emissions in Asia, the Regional Emission inventory in ASia (REAS) 1.11 has been developed and opened since 2007. Recently, we have updated the REAS inventory and opened as version 2.1 in this website. Datasets of Regional Emission inventory in Asia for Persistent Organic Pollutants (REAS-POP) 1.0 which focuses on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in North east Asia are also provided.
MEIC database is now in internal test stage and only available for several collaborators. At this moment, the database includes anthropogenic emissions of China for ten chemical species: SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, NH3, CO2, PM2.5, PMcoarse, BC, and OC. Emissions are available for 2008 and 2010 with monthly temporal variation. Gridded emissions are provided with 1/4, 1/2, and 1 degree resolution. NMVOC emissions are further lumped to CB05, SAPRC99, and RADM2 mechanisms.